Crate connectorx[][src]

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ConnectorX enables you to load data from databases into dataframes in the fastest and most memory efficient way by leveraging zero-copy and partition-based parallelism.

Currently, ConnectorX consists of a Rust core library and a python library. This is the documentation for the Rust crate. For the documentation of the Python library, please refer to our Github Readme.


A data loading problem consists of three sub-problems:

  1. How to connect to the data source and read data.
  2. How to connect to the data destination and write data.
  3. How to map the types between the source and destination.

Additionally, since ConnectorX will partition a query into partitions and execute them in parallel, we also have 4. How to partition the query and run them in parallel.

ConnectorX approaches these problems by defining abstractions on sources, destinations, and mapping rules. For the partition-based parallelism, ConnectorX will partition the query as well as the source and the destination together and put them into threads. Each thread will own exactly 1 query, 1 partitioned source, and 1 partitioned destination.

The following graph depicts the internal mechanism when ConnectorX is downloading the data.

                    |                           Thread 1                         |
                    |                                                            |
    +---+           | +-----------------+   +-------------+  +-----------------+ |          +---+
    |   +-----------+>| Partitioned Src +-->| Type Mapper +->| Partitioned Dst +-+--------->|   |
    |   |           | +-----------------+   +-------------+  +-----------------+ |          |   |
    | D |           |                                                            |          | D |
    | a |           +------------------------------------------------------------+          | a |
    | t |                                          .                                        | t |
    | a |                                          .                                        | a |
    | b |                                          .                                        | f |
    | a |           +------------------------------------------------------------+          | r |
    | s |           |                           Thread n                         |          | a |
    | e |           |                                                            |          | m |
    |   |           | +-----------------+   +-------------+  +-----------------+ |          | e |
    |   +-----------+>| Partitioned Src +-->| Type Mapper +->| Partitioned Dst +-+--------->|   |
    +---+           | +-----------------+   +-------------+  +-----------------+ |          +---+
                    |                                                            |

How does ConnectorX download the data?

Upon receiving the query, e.g. SELECT * FROM lineitem, ConnectorX will first issue a LIMIT 1 query SELECT * FROM lineitem LIMIT 1 to get the schema of the result set.

Then, if partition_on is specified, ConnectorX will issue SELECT MIN($partition_on), MAX($partition_on) FROM (SELECT * FROM lineitem) to know the range of the partition column. After that, the original query is split into partitions based on the min/max information, e.g. SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM lineitem) WHERE $partition_on > 0 AND $partition_on < 10000. ConnectorX will then run a count query to get the partition size (e.g. SELECT COUNT(*) FROM (SELECT * FROM lineitem) WHERE $partition_on > 0 AND $partition_on < 10000). If the partition is not specified, the count query will be SELECT COUNT(*) FROM (SELECT * FROM lineitem).

Finally, ConnectorX will use the schema info as well as the count info to allocate memory and download data by executing the queries normally. Once the downloading begins, there will be one thread for each partition so that the data are downloaded in parallel at the partition level. The thread will issue the query of the corresponding partition to the database and then write the returned data to the destination row-wise or column-wise (depends on the database) in a streaming fashion. This mechanism implies that having an index on the partition column is recommended to make full use of the parallel downloading power provided by ConnectorX.

Extending ConnectorX

Adding a new source

To add a new data source, you need to implement sources::Source, sources::SourcePartition, sources::PartitionParser, and sources::Produce for the source. In detail, sources::Source describes how to connect to the database from a connection string, as well as how to do partitioning on the source to produce a list of sources::SourcePartition. sources::SourcePartition describes how to get the row count for the specific partition so that the destination can preallocate the memory. Finally, sources::PartitionParser and sources::Produce abstracts away the detail about how does each partition parse different types.

Adding a new destination

To add a new data destination, you need to implement destinations::Destination, destinations::DestinationPartition, and destinations::Consume. Similar to the sources, destinations::Destination describes how to allocate the memory of the data destination, as well as how to do partitioning on the destination to produce a list of destinations::DestinationPartition. destinations::DestinationPartition and destinations::Consume abstract away the detail about how does each partition writes different types.

Adding a new transport (type mapping)

After having a source and a destination that describes how to read and write the data, ConnectorX also needs to know how to convert the values with different types from the source to the destination. For example, Postgres can produce a uuid type but there’s no uuid in Arrow. It is the transport’s duty to convert the uuid into an Arrow compatible type, e.g. string. You can use the impl_transport! macro to define a transport.

Putting things together

Say, you decide to load data from SQL Server to Arrow. In ConnectorX we already provided the source for SQL Server as sources::sqlite::SQLiteSource, and the Arrow destination destinations::arrow::ArrowDestination, as well as the transport transports::SQLiteArrowTransport. Given the source, destination and transport already implemented, you can use dispatcher::Dispatcher to load the data:

use connectorx::prelude::*;

let mut destination = ArrowDestination::new();
let source = SQLiteSource::new("sqlite:///path/to/db", 10).expect("cannot create the source");
let queries = &["SELECT * FROM db WHERE id < 100", "SELECT * FROM db WHERE id >= 100"];
let dispatcher = Dispatcher::<SQLiteSource, ArrowDestination, SQLiteArrowTransport>::new(source, &mut destination, queries, None);"run failed");

let data = destination.arrow();

Need more examples?

You can use the existing implementation as the example. MySQL source, Arrow destination, MySQL to Arrow transport.

Sources & Destinations that is implemented in the Rust core.


  • Postgres
  • Mysql
  • Sqlite
  • Redshift (through postgres protocol)
  • Clickhouse (through mysql protocol)
  • SQL Server


  • PyArrow
  • Modin
  • Dask
  • Polars

Feature gates

By default, ConnectorX does not enable any sources / destinations to keep the dependencies minimal. Instead, we provide following features for you to opt-in: src_sqlite, src_postgres, src_mysql, src_mssql, src_oracle, dst_arrow, dst_arrow2. For example, if you’d like to load data from Postgres to Arrow, you can enable src_postgres and dst_arrow in Cargo.toml. This will enable sources::postgres, destinations::arrow and transports::PostgresArrowTransport.


This module provides two data orders: row-wise and column-wise for tabular data, as well as a function to coordinate the data order between source and destination.

This module defines three traits Destination, DestinationPartition, and Consume to define a destination. This module also contains destination implementations for various dataframes.

This module defines four traits Source, SourcePartition, PartitionParser, and Produce to define a source. This module also contains source implementations for various databases.

This module contains transport definitions for the sources and destinations implemented in ConnectorX.

This module defines traits that required to define a typesystem.


A macro to help define a Transport.

Associate physical representations to a typesystem.